Ammonia, Northeastern Ammonia, Hamler Industries, Bower Ammonia
735 Davisville Road, Third Floor, Southampton, PA 18966; 215-322-1238
Corporate emergency telephone
:: Statement of Health Hazard
:: Physical Data
:: Emergency Treatment
:: Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
:: Chemical Reactivity
|:: Spill or
:: Special Protection and Procedures
:: Special Precautions
:: Labeling and Shipping
:: Other Regulatory Requirements
Chemical Name: Ammonia,
CAS Registry No: 7664-41-7
Chemical Family: Inorganic Nitrogen Compound
Molecular Weight: 17.03 (NH3 )
Composition: 99+% Ammonia
Ammonia is an irritant and corrosive to the skin, eyes, respiratory tract and mucous membranes. Exposure to liquid or rapidly expanding gases may cause severe chemical burns and frostbite to the eyes, lungs and skin. Skin and respiratory related diseases could be aggravated by exposure.
• Not recognized by OSHA as a carcinogen
• Not listed in the National Toxicology Program
• Not listed as a carcinogen by the International Agency
for Research on Cancer
|Exposure Limits for Ammonia: Vapor
||35 mg / m3 PEL
||8 hour TWA
||27 mg / m3 STEL
|| 15 minutes
|| 18 mg / m3 REL
||10 hour TWA
||18 mg / m3 TLV
||8 hour TWA
||27 mg / m3 STEL
Toxicity: LD 50, (Oral / Rat),
350 mg / kg
Boiling Point: -28°F
at 1 atm
Specific Gravity of Gas (air = 1): 0.596
Specific Gravity of Liquid (water = 1): 0.682 at
-28°F (compared to water at 39°F)
Percent Volatile: 100% at 212°F
Appearance and Odor: Colorless liquid or
gas with pungent odor
Critical Temperature: 271.4°F
Gas Specific Volume: 20.78 Ft3/lb
at 32°F and 1 atm
Vapor Density (air = 1): 0.0481 Lb/Ft3
Liquid Density: 38.00 Lb/Ft3 at
Approximate Freezing Point: -108°F
Weight (per gallon): 5.15 pounds at 60°F
Vapor Pressure: 114 psig 70°F
Solubility in Water (per 100 pounds of water):
86.9 pounds at 32°F,
51 pounds at 68°F
Surface Tension: 23.4 Dynes / cm at 52°F
Critical Pressure: 111.5 atm
Effects of Overexposure
Eye: May cause severe irritation, eye burns or permanent eye damage.
Skin: Irritation, corrosive burns, blister formation may result. Contact with liquid may produce a caustic burn and frostbite.
Inhalation: Exposure may result in severe irritation and / or burns of the nose, throat and respiratory tract. It may cause bronchospasm, pulmonary edema or respiratory arrest. Extreme exposure may result in death from spasm, inflammation or edema. Brief inhalation exposure to 5,000 ppm may be fatal.
Ingestion: Ingestion is unlikely since the material is a gas under normal atmospheric conditions. If ingested, it may cause burns and severe pain of the mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach or may be fatal.
Emergency Aid: Remove patient
to uncontaminated area
Eye: Flush with copious amounts of tepid water for a minimum of 20 minutes. Eyelids should be held apart and away from eyeball for thorough rinsing. Seek medical attention.
Skin: Flush with copious amounts of tepid water for a minimum of 20 minutes while removing contaminated clothing, jewelry and shoes. Do not rub or apply ointment on affected area. Clothing may initially freeze to skin. Thaw frozen clothing from skin before removing. For liquid ammonia contact, seek immediate medical attention. For severe vapor contact or if irritation persists, seek medical attention.
Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, administer artificial respiration. If trained to do so, administer supplemental oxygen, if required. In case of severe exposure or if irritation persists or if breathing difficulties arise, get medical attention.
Ingestion: If conscious, give large amounts of water to drink. May drink orange juice, citrus juice or diluted vinegar (1:4) to counteract ammonia. If unconscious, do not give anything by mouth. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING! Seek medical attention.
NOTE TO PHYSICIAN:
Respiratory injury may appear as a delayed phenomenon. Pulmonary edema may follow chemical bronchitis. Supportive treatment with necessary ventilation actions, including oxygen, may warrant consideration.
Flammable Limits in Air: LEL/UEL 16% to 25%
(listed as 15% to 28% in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.)
Extinguishing Media: Dry Chemical, CO2,
water spray or alcohol-resistant foam if gas flow cannot be
Auto Ignition Temperature: 1,204°F (If catalyzed),
1,570°F (If un-catalyzed)
Special Fire-Fighting Procedure
Must wear protective clothing and a positive pressure SCBA. Stop source if possible. If a portable container (such as a cylinder or trailer) can be moved from the fire area without risk to the individual, do so to prevent the pressure relief valve of the trailer from discharging or the cylinder from rupturing. Fight fires using dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Cool fire-exposed containers with water spray. Stay upwind when containers are threatened. Use water spray to knock down vapor and dilute.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards
• Outdoors, ammonia is not generally a fire hazard. Indoors, in confined areas, ammonia may be a fire hazard, especially if oil and other combustible materials are present. Combustion may form toxic nitrogen oxides.
• If relief valves are inoperative, heat exposed storage containers may become explosion hazards due to over pressurization.
Stable at room temperature. Heating a closed container above room temperature causes vapor pressure to increase rapidly. Anhydrous ammonia will react exothermically with acids and water. Will not polymerize.
Conditions to Avoid
Anhydrous ammonia has potentially explosive reactions with strong oxidizers. Anhydrous ammonia forms explosive mixtures in air with hydrocarbons, chlorine, fluorine and silver nitrate. Anhydrous ammonia reacts to form explosive products, mixtures or compounds with mercury, gold, silver, iodine, bromine, silver oxide and silver chloride.
Avoid anhydrous ammonia contact with chlorine, which forms a chloramine gas, which is a primary skin irritant and sensitizer. Anhydrous ammonia is incompatible with acetaldehyde, acrolein, boron, chloric acid, chlorine monoxide, chlorites, nitrogen tetroxide, perchlorate, sulfur, tin and strong acids.
Avoid contact with galvanized surfaces, copper, brass, bronze, mercury, gold and silver. A corrosive reaction will occur.
Hazardous Decomposition Products
Anhydrous ammonia decomposes to hydrogen and nitrogen gases above 450°C (842°F). Decomposition temperatures may be lowered by contact with certain metals, such as iron, nickel and zinc and by catalytic surfaces such as porcelain and pumice.
Steps to be Taken
Stop source of leak if possible, provided it can be done in a safe manner. Leave the area of a spill by moving laterally and upwind. Isolate the affected area. Non-responders should evacuate the area, or shelter in place. Only properly trained and equipped persons should respond to an ammonia release. Wear eye, hand and respiratory protection and protective clothing; see PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. Stay upwind and use water spray downwind of container to absorb the evolved gas. Contain spill and runoff from entering drains, sewers, and water systems by utilizing methods such as diking, containment, and absorption. CAUTION: ADDING WATER DIRECTLY TO LIQUID SPILLS WILL INCREASE VOLATILIZATION OF AMMONIA, THUS INCREASING THE POSSIBILITY OF EXPOSURE.
Listed as hazardous substance under CWA (40 CFR 116.4, 40 CFR 117.3). Reportable Quantity 100 pounds. Classified as hazardous waste under RCRA (40CFR 261.22 Corrosive #D002). Comply with all regulations. Suitably diluted product may be utilized on agricultural land as fertilizer. Keep spill from entering streams, lakes, or any water systems.
At a minimum, splash proof, chemical safety goggles, ammonia resistant gloves (such as rubber) and ammonia-impervious clothing should be worn to prevent contact during normal operations, such as loading, unloading and transfers. A face shield and boots can be worn as additional protection. Refer to 29 CFR 1910.132 through 1910.138 for OSHA personal protective equipment requirements.
For a hazardous material release response, Level A or Level B ensemble including positive-pressure SCBA should be used.
Chemical splash goggles should be worn when handling anhydrous ammonia. A face shield can be worn over chemical splash goggles as additional protection. Do not wear contact lenses when handling anhydrous ammonia. Refer to 29 CFR 1910.133 for OSHA eye protection requirements.
Respiratory protection approved by NIOSH for ammonia must be used when applicable safety and health exposure limits are exceeded. For escape in emergencies, NIOSH approved respiratory protection that consists of a full-face gas mask and canisters approved for ammonia or SCBA should be used. A positive pressure SCBA is required for entry into ammonia atmospheres at unknown concentrations or above 300 ppm (IDLH). Refer to 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI: Z88.2 for OSHA respiratory protection requirements. Also refer to 29 CFR 1910.111 for respiratory protection requirements at bulk installations.
Maintain adequate ventilation to keep ammonia concentrations below the applicable standards.
Storage and Handling
Only trained persons should handle anhydrous ammonia. Store in cool (26.7°C / 80°F) and well-ventilated areas, with containers tightly closed. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.111 prescribes handling and storage requirements for anhydrous ammonia as a hazardous material. Use only stainless steel, carbon steel or black iron for anhydrous ammonia containers or piping. Do not use plastic. Do not use any non-ferrous metals such as copper, brass, bronze, tin, zinc or galvanized metals. Protect containers from physical damage. Keep away from ignition sources, especially in indoor spaces.
Work-Place Protective Equipment
Protective equipment should be stored near, but outside of anhydrous ammonia area. Water for first aid, such as an eyewash station and safety shower, should be kept available in the immediate vicinity. See 29 CFR 1910.111 for workplace requirements.
See WASTE DISPOSAL. Classified as RCRA Hazardous Waste due to corrosivity with designation D002, if disposed of in original form.
Hazard Class: (US Domestic): 2.2 (Non-Flammable
Gas) (International): 2.3 (Poison Gas) subsidiary 8 (Corrosive)
Proper Shipping Description:
• (US Domestic): UN1005, Ammonia, Anhydrous, 2.2, RQ, Inhalation Hazard
• (International): UN1005, Ammonia, Anhydrous, 2.3, (8), RQ, Poison-Inhalation Hazard Zone "D"
Placard: (US Domestic): Non-Flammable Gas,
(International): Poison Gas, Corrosive (Subsidiary)
Identification No: UN 1005
National Fire Protection Assoc. Hazardous Rating and
Hazardous Materials Identification System Labels:
HEALTH = 3
FLAMMABILITY = 1
REACTIVITY = 0
PERSONAL PROTECTION = H
Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), Section 103, any environmental release of this chemical equal to or over the reportable quantity of 100 lbs. must be reported promptly to the National Response Center, Washington, D.C. (1-800-424-8802).
The material is subject to the reporting requirements of Section 304, Section 312 and Section 313, Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 and 40 CFR 372. Emergency Planning & Community Right to Know Act, (EPCRA) extremely hazardous substance, 40 CFR 355, Title III, Section 302 - Ammonia, Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ) 500 lbs.
EPA Hazard Categories - Immediate: Yes; Delayed: No; Fire: No; Sudden Release: Yes; Reactive: No.
Clean Air Act - Section 112(r): Material is listed under EPA's Risk Management Program (RMP), 40 CFR Part 68, at storage/process amounts greater than the Threshold Quantity (TQ) of 10,000 lbs.
The chemical is listed under Department of Homeland Security regulation 6 CFR Part 27, Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards at storage / process amounts greater than the threshold quantity of 10,000 pounds.
This chemical is subject to 49 CFR 1580, Rail Transportation Security.
The information, data, and recommendations in this material
safety data sheet relate only to the specific material designated
herein and do not relate to use in combination with any other
material or in any process. The information, data, and recommendations
set forth herein are believed by us to be accurate. We make
no warranties, either expressed or implied, with respect thereto
and assume no liability in connection with any use of such
information, data, and recommendations.
Prepared By: JRP